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Management and Leadership

Journal Article-1

Lowe, JB, Barry, ES & Grunberg, NE 2020, 'Improving leader effectiveness across multi-generational workforces', Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 46–52, DOI:10.1002/jls.21681.

Summary of Journal Article 1

The journal article relates to improving the leader's effectiveness across the multi-generational workforce. Lowe, Barry & Grunberg (2020) points out that there is four generations of people in the workforce that presents the problem for leaders in establishing work priorities and perspectives. The paper addressed the required skillset for improving leader in multiple generations. The primary generation is discussed in the workforce such as Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. The workplace is a mix of generations of employees across who have molded with characteristics and have defined their generation. Generation gap as extrinsic motivation is identified at workplace. The perception of misrepresentation of generation shows that generation difference can cause conflict at the workplace and real workplace tension. Lowe, Barry & Grunberg (2020) points the difference in generation failure and difference in nationality and generation gap is related to age, the period is difficult to distinguish. The evidence-based research show perceptions of general differences cause conflict in the workplace. Workplace conflict occurs due to perception and expectations. The authors emphasized on leadership development on global mindset, self-awareness and service-oriented and relationship building and adaptable leadership.

Increasing diversity through evidence shows a reduction in generation and source of identity in the workplace. The adoption of the leadership approach of Heifetz generalizes caution and perception (Lowe, Barry &Grunberg, 2020). The strategies for leaders for unfavorable behavior and allostatic leadership approach will help in organization effectiveness. Cross generation leadership and traditional mentoring as conflict resolution in the generation for job satisfaction increase younger employee and career development by acknowledging employee value. Lowe, Barry & Grunberg (2020) states that traditional mentoring (i.e., more experienced workers counseling less-experienced workers) increases the job satisfaction of younger employees by providing feedback, career development, and organizational support and of older employees by acknowledging the expertise and providing value to help leaders to adopt organization change.

Reverse mentoring for skill development will provide maximum efficiency by building trust and mentees with members of each generation. The article describes individual consideration and communication style for unstated assumptions for communication and adjusting style to remove the conflict between the members. The directional bid on maintaining adequate training and resource utilization and time are essential strategies which leaders can implement to prevent general navigation and resistance in conflict. The skill set will be instrumental in improving the effectiveness of multiple generational leaders. According to Lowe, Barry & Grunberg (2020) multi-generational leadership refers to “over communication” and “difference deployment”. The use of the ACRON model will create a work environment that is supportive of multiple generations and leaders must ensure communication policy for two way communication.

Commentary

In my opinion, diversity means inclusion that can be beneficial for the organization. Diversity can bring conflicts with it as it can be a source of richness the transformational leadership has to harness intercommunication between all levels. Leaders would have to involve at the personal level and focus to mitigate risk factors. The leadership is conceptualized with a behavioral domain that is attributed to reward and motivation. Cultural intelligence is adapted for transforming behavior through training and development of resources (Aldhaheri 2017, pp.718-735).I agree with the author that the generation gap always exits within organizations and it can be normalized with subordinate trust and empowering them with responsibilities. Gender diversity at the workplace has both positive and negative impacts ranging from employee morale, job satisfaction to group cohesiveness. The article proposes a training and mentoring program that can be a key pathway in promoting wok and discussions and will promote employee differences and understanding their attitude and values.

I strongly support training programs as training at the workplace will result in shaping employees of organization and understanding diversity by smoothly running function and integration of all generations at the workplace (Lowe, Barry & Grunberg 2020).The training program at my workplace with behavior-based training will increase staff openness for diversity and strategic processes creating respect and understanding between the new generation and the older group. The action for organization inclusion for navigating the generational gap as culture transformation is an action in the right direction. I would suggest to the organizations to foster creativity and help in the mutually beneficial relationship development for decision making empowerment that will help in embracing opinion at all spheres of management. Gender diversity should be retained with strength and motivation for the multigenerational workforce for breaking stereotypes and effectively dealing with employees. The question that arises with the relation of generation difference and work relationship is due to behavior-based perception towards the younger generation. Communication is central for resolving conflict and changes for organization structuring for inclusion for all. I would recommend my workplace to use openness in culture and enhanced interaction between subordinate and supervisor for problem-solving and reducing barriers within the organization.

Karsaklian (2019) states that the Mannheim theory observedhat reducing the conceived illusion relating to identity and social process within the organization will reduce interpersonal conflict. The understanding at workplace in the older group is generalized due to the belief in characteristics that shape individuals by distinguishing them from other generations. A two-way program can develop with technological resistance that can be deal with workplace support and can help in developing leader mentor relationship. The article stresses on the leader to leverage with the workforce who face challenges due to complicated work structure and different generational approach due to the age gap. The perception of individual work is primarily on worker's motivation towards the work with flexibility and authority excursions. According to Karsaklian (2019) the development of trust and using methods such as pre-empts can help in uncovering the potential conflicts in the organization. The management style and action facilitate balancing workplace choice by authority at all levels which further reduces favors and discrimination along with prejudice, if any. The feedback communicated by the leaders will decrease complex structure in hierarchy.

The retention of staff by providing workplace choice will add flexibility among staff who can balance work and personal goals will motivate them towards working in the organization. The change in a process or any other aspect within an organization is challenging and the mentoring session can help reducing the gap in interdepartmental and organizational conflict. Allostic leadership is ideal for navigating challenging situations in adaptation towards experiences (Cynthia et al, 2018). Leaders should adopt the mechanism for flexibility and operations to promote suitable work culture and burnout and fatigue among the employees. Although adaptive leaders respond effectively to challenging situations, it is not clear that they learn from and change as a result of these adaptations and experiences. Perhaps they do or, instead, they might return to the pre-situation state. Lowe, Barry & Grunberg (2020) described the SCRON model at the workplace in the workplace by maintaining friendly relationships with colleagues through training sessions.

The use of trust and relationship is accommodating employee differences, creating workplace command through reducing bureaucracy. The use of sophisticated management will allow employees to work together. Respecting cross-generational communication and retention for the opportunity can help in utilizing the staff's best skill (Dryer & Azevedo 2016). As a leader I consider open dialog concepts to ensure communication in my team. In providing input, setting goals for the organization, and sustaining employment navigating leadership is to be maintained. My experience with team handling has shown resistance by staff, the introduction of phases such as face to face interactions, team building to understand employee flexibility and evolving communication among leaders and staff at workplace. Communication in the workplace has to evolve with generational in the workplace for effective communication. My experience shows that the Golden link is another leadership model that can be used alternatively for the older and younger employee as this model emphasis on communication and deployment of work as per employee need and requirement of the firm for the relay of information to one another. I agree with the author on individual consideration for effective leadership as it creates importance for each individual and helps to reduce workplace tension.

Journal Article 2

Kramer, M, Page, L & Klemic, G 2019, 'Evolving leadership: New clues and cues toward environment and context', Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 82–85, DOI:10.1002/jls.21618.

Summary of Journal Article 2

The current article presents a vision of leadership and relationship building and emotional intelligence within an organization. Organizational structure and design are moved from traditional command to new entities and it requires transformative leadership. The article highlighted leadership evolvement in the conduct of the business. The business environment is fast-changing and it requires constant upgradation. It showed complexity science and reframing of perspectives on the organization for running smoothly. Kramer, Page & Klemic (2019) discussed the in-depth insight on meta-analysis and transformational leadership with a focus on transformation leadership components that have been on the radar. Trust, emotional intelligence, and relationship to leadership style are component of leadership that focuses on building the culture of empowerment and respect. Transformational leadership builds trust between leaders and organizational culture. Emotional intelligence and leadership style on trait-based measures are associated with transformational leadership (Kramer, Page& Klemic 2019). The authors highlight the proposition that transformational leadership results in better team outcomes and will help the organization in moving towards future endeavors. The emphasis on leadership style shows the humanness of leaders and dynamic communities rather than mechanisms in evolving leadership. The author describes CAS as nonlinear, and its capacity to be a good fit in the organization.

Transformational leadership correlates with authentic and ethical leadership. The article highlighted 4 categories as implications about the future of leadership. Training and development is the first category that shows leaders are focused on career outcomes and organization moving towards future endeavors. Transformational leadership is vital as leaders need to continuously augment knowledge and tasks. Transformational leadership is linked with the capacity of leadership development (Kramer, Page& Klemic 2019). The effect of transformation leadership as organizational success and cultural diversity is a guide for organizational success. Leadership style as the second category has a dynamic mechanism for the ability, the leaders need to apply cultural and environmental settings is based on a variety of situation. Leadership competency is important to balance generational range at the workplace.

Leadership competency is associated with the creative context in the article as the dynamic environment related to the spread of artificial intelligence and robotics. The leadership has evolved with cultural and environmental settings. The intercultural and subcultural dynamics add to the complexity of leadership as leadership competency in critical times is important. The leadership context has widened with leadership in healthcare, education, and human resource development. The leadership’s positive impact on human capital is a guiding force for organizational success. The creative context and intercultural values have made the intercultural context complex. The (Kramer, Page& Klemic 2019) stress employee engagement as one of the factors that impact leadership. Proactive behavior, positive work culture drives corporate responsibility and organizational behavior. The organization must reflect on the nature of CASs to explore organizations and its impact on employee relationships and leadership.

Commentary

The characteristics of leadership can be developed through leadership style such as transformational leadership that can be collectively engaging and the programs that followers can embrace (Yahaya & Ebrahim 2016). Ethical behavior is drawn from social learning theory that influences positive behavior .Lacerenza et al. (2017) raise the argument that transformational leadership can build trust between the leader and the follower in navigating organizational objective. The subordinate and manager relationship will drive uncertainty with the help of transformational leadership. High emotional intelligence will translate to better leadership and self-management towards transformational leadership in dynamic environment. This can be a leadership attribute and style that are approachable and applicable in handling actions towards organizational change. Trust between leader and follower is critical in building a culture of empowerment, equality, and respect. Alston & Chin-loy (2016) in research have found that transformational leadership can build the needed trust between leader and follower that is often eroded within the complex organizational culture.

Transformational leaders provide a deep level of commitment and performance for organizations. My focus as a leader is on progress and development through employee engagement by employees for corporate social responsibility. In my opinion, leaders when taking the role of coach and mentor provide consultative leadership behavior for the performance level. The deepening of transformative leadership can lead to the emergence of team cohesion, coordination, and employee and organization effectiveness in the outcome (Alston & Chin-loy 2016). I agree with knowledge creation as a guide to transformative leadership which can stimulate creativity and innovation. Emotional intelligence as cognitive behavior provides a holistic view of employee working and their cognitive behavior resistance if any.

Cultural diversity and attending staff suggestions and improvement will foster organization towards openness and collaborative culture. Ethical leadership correlates with transformative leadership, personal actions and two-way communication as it reinforces decision- making and is identified as an ancillary dimension of leadership (Kim& Kim 2017). I disagree that servant leader's principle is aligned with transformative leadership as it varies as transformation leadership focuses on organizational objectives and inspiring followers whereas ethical leadership focus is on followers. The organizational leadership emerging with ethical and servant style is linear to similarities with commitment and followers relationship with supervisors. Ethical and servant leadership do not have a strong emphasis on role performance for group leadership for social learning and ethical role modeling. Ethical leadership emphasizes on job satisfaction for employee work. The centrality of the leadership is to add significant incremental validity for empirical reasoning and theoretical change for enforcing positive relationships and promoting identification with leaders for organizational objectives (Kim& Kim 2017).Emotional intelligence can transform the human conscience and variable impact on the organizational objective while navigating with trait-based behavior for social intelligence for softer skills needed for the job.

My experience with organizational interaction in the long term has shaped leadership with the help of follower and leader interactions. Personal development and augmentation of knowledge with time make leadership transformation prevalent. Traditional command leadership had less scope and as illustrated in the article the emergence of different type of leaders have been subsequent with organization response. The emergence of transformational leadership imparts trust and relative development in leadership can be through continuous training and development within the organization (Kramer &Klemic 2019) .The development of leadership style and moral dimension is a potential contribution to transformational leadership and it is more effective in explain through leader-follower outcomes.

Reference List for Leadership Journal Commentary

Karsaklian, E 2019,‘An explorative case study: Barilla Corporation use of diversity sensitivity via transformational leadership to contain a public relation crisis’. Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 13, no.2, pp. 83-89. DOI:10.1002/jls.21640

Aldhaheri, A 2017,‘Cultural intelligence and leadership style in the education sector’. The International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 31, no.6, pp.718-735

Kim, H., Kim, T 2017,‘Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership: A Review of Empirical Studies’.Human Resource Development Review, vol.16, no.4.pp. 377-393. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484317729262

Dwyer, R. J., & Azevedo, A2016,‘Preparing leaders for the multi-generational workforce’. Journal of Enterprising Communities, vol. 10, no.3, pp. 281 – 305. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEC-08-2013-0025

Yahaya, R. & Ebrahim, F 2016,’ Leadership styles and organizational commitment. Journal of Management Development’, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 190-216. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-01-2015-0004

Kramer, M, Page, L & Klemic, G 2019,’ Evolving leadership: New clues and cues towardEnvironment and context', Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 82–85,DOI:10.1002/jls.21618.

Lowe, JB, Barry, ES & Grunberg, NE 2020, 'Improving leader effectiveness across multi-generational workforces', Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 46–52, DOI:10.1002/jls.21681.

Lacerenza, C. N., Reyes, D. L., Marlow, S. L., Joseph, D. L., &Salas, E 2017,‘Leadership training design, delivery, and implementation: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology’, vol. 102, no.12, pp. 1686–1718. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000241

Cynthia et al. 2018,‘Adapting Leadership Styles to Reflect Generational Differences in the Academy’. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education August 2018, vol. 82, no.6, p. 32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6886

Alston, B.A., & Chin-Loy, C 2016,‘Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership to Foster Sustainability’.International Journal of Business and Social Science. vol.7, no.5, pp. 9-23

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