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Executive summary

The report analyses a strategic event that can be effective in facilitating the number of tourist during the winter months of Sydney. From the recent analysis it can be observed that the winter months of Sydney lacks in the number of tourist that further affects the revenue of the tourist industry within the domain. However, the Vivid Sydney and Love Every Second marketing campaign tends to increase the tourist attraction during the winter months of the city. Due to low revenue of the tourist sector during the winter months of the city, the reports aims at proposing new events that will be beneficial in attracting tourist attention during the winter months. In this respect, implementation of Bondi Beach Campfire event can be helpful in mitigating the current issue; the event will be rich in facilitating the traditional beliefs of the place while presenting a suitable environment at a winter night. A detailed discussion of all the aspects relat4d to the event and others events within Sydney has been presented below. 

Table of Contents

Introduction 4

Findings and analysis 4

Concept and theories of tourist or visitor behavior 4

Theories of visitor motivation 7

Successful destination 9

Critical appraisal of tourism agencies strategies for promoting visitation to Sydney 10

Assessment of Sydney’s attractions 10

Conclusion 11

Recommendations 12

Reference list 13

Appendix: Recreation Demand Hierarchy Model 18


Management of the visitor tends to impact on the behaviour of the visitors. Proper management of the visitors lives up to the expectation of the tourism industry and assists in the accomplishment of the targeted goals. Sydney, considered to be one of the most visited places by tourist seems to be having a low number of visitors in the winter season. The city is set up with numerous events and festivals all throughout the year. However, the winter season does not seem to be crowded by visitor due to less number of incidents of festivals. This appears to be affecting the economy of the place as the hotels, and other tourist attraction places experience low revenue. In this respect, the study will be discussing various theories, concepts or visitor behaviour alongside motivation. Besides, strategies adopted by the place for the attraction of tourists all throughout the year will also be a significant part of the discussion in this study. Additionally, the events that are held in Sydney will also be discussed in the study, along with its strengths and weakness. Lastly, the study will be engaged in proposing new ideas for attracting visitors in the winter season.

Findings and analysis

Concept and theories of tourist or visitor behaviour

Tourism behaviour relates to the concept of the action of the consumer. It also refers to the abandonment and uptake of the services of tourist. As per the opinion of Bhati & Pearce (2016), the behaviour of the tourist reflects the attitude that is being possessed by the tourist at the time of travel or the time before having some sorts of travelling experience. It can also be stated as the desires of the tourist in terms of travelling. However, having some kind of knowledge regarding the behaviour of travel of the tourists can be useful for the tourism companies planning and development of the marketing criteria alongside increase the customers base further gaining benefitted in the business. There are numerous factors that can affect the behaviour of tourists. In the opinion of Goh, Ritchie & Wang (2017), geographical considerations, social factors, the destination of the tourism, education of the tourist alongside the place of origin are the factors that tend to affect the behaviour of the tourists. The factors mentioned are also likely to change the demand and perception of the tourist and can also enhance the quality of decisions taken by the tourists.


Learning is considered to be a part of travel. As commented by Miller et al.(2019), people love travelling due to experience strange things. It also helps in gaining various skills and knowledge that are proved to be beneficial in several aspects of life. Travel can help people in learning a new culture, a new language, unique cuisine and others and helps in changing perception towards life. In this respect, as mentioned by Esfandiar, Pearce & Dowling (2019), changing perception and changing the daily life routine can also form specific reasons for travelling. Additionally, travelling also helps in building a healthy relationship. It also facilitates rejuvenating and relaxing. Besides, travelling also provides a chance of appreciating the beauty of nature and staying in touch with their self. The above-mentioned reasons act as the primary cause for visitors to travel around the world. In some of the cases, travelling serves as a passion.


As per the Tourism Experience Theory proposed by Pine and Gilmore, there are four realms classifying the experiences of the tourist (Suntikul & Jachna, 2016). It includes aesthetics, education, entertainment and escapism. Knowledge of education, as described in this theory, is considered to be the major. As reflected above, culture forms the most part of travelling. It assists in absorbing the experienced gained from travelling in the mental state. This helps in fast remembering and facilitates knowledge in the field for the future. For instance, visiting the galleries of art or the wineries can be useful in enhancing the education regarding the various forms of art or wines that can further improve the ability to become a connoisseur. Conversely, as opined by Jung et al. (2016), passive absorption of the travelling experiences tends to appeal to the senses. These are being further reflected as esthetical experience. It is because it helps in the immersion of mind within the travelling skills though it is being revealed as institutional knowledge. For instance, visiting a site of historical attraction can be observed as an esthetical experience. It is because the view is being passively appreciated by the visitors though they are not involved in it actively.  


However, the experiences of escapism involve activities participation that is not included in the above-mentioned relations of the tourist experience. As per the opinion of Buonincontri, Marasco & Ramkissoon (2017), the realm of escapism involves immersion alongside participation having an active effect of the phenomenon or involvement. For instance, playing golf in an attractive tourist place or participating in the activities of campaigning in a destination involves the active participation of the tourist and can be classified as escapism. In these aspects, the effects of visitor participation within the activities are likely to have an immense impact on the outcome of the event. Apart from that, the last and the final realm, that is the entertainment plays a very crucial part in the aspects of travelling. As per the illustration of Abascal, Fluker & Jiang (2016), the realm of entertain also aims at passive absorption of the travelling experiences. It also tends to affect the aspects of performances. Hence, considering all the four experience of travelling it can be depicted that mainly for realms, including the elements of entertainment, esthetical, escapism and education are the main reasons for tourism.

Theories of visitor motivation

Tourist or visitor motivation can be reflected as a network of global integration in terms of cultural and biological forces. As per the analysis of Fernandes & Cruz (2016), the motivation of the tourist helps in providing relevant value and direction in terms of choosing the various destination of travel. It also aims at influencing the experience and behaviour of travel. However, as per the opinion of Tung, Chen & Schuckert (2017), the expertise of travel affects the autobiographical memory. Besides, it is also being stated that the factors of experience, such as local culture, alongside hedonic activity and involvement, also affect the recollection of autobiographical memory and vividness in terms of past experiences. Alternatively, as argued by Ballantyne et al. (2018), local culture experiences also tend to enhance the recollection of the experiences of recent travel. Hence, it can be concluded that efforts of marketing at the anticipation stage of the journey are utmost significant for memorable experiences of flying.


On the other hand, as stated by Su & Swanson (2017), push factors also serve as the motivational factors for the tourist in terms of travel experiences. Some of the push factors involve involvement, pleasure, happiness, stimulation, refreshment and hedonism. In addition to this, other factors including personal experience, social interaction, adventure, escaping pressure and intellectual cultivation, also serve as a push factor for the individual in terms of travel experience. As depicted by Gstaettner, Lee & Rodger (2018), social interaction and refreshment act as a major motivational factor foie the tourist, it helps in gaining new ideas and concept and also helps in gathering the desired experiences. Hence, the higher the motivational aspects among the tourist, the higher will be the desire to travel.

Successful destination

National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) and National Tourism Administrations (NTAs) involves the effective formation of the strategies that help in the generation of the tourist vibrancy during the winter months that seems to be the least visited tourist months. As per the analysis of Bruwer & Joy (2017), it is considered to be the significant aspects in terms of a diversified economy in terms of improving the national populations’ wellbeing. NTOs or NTAs mainly works in the realisation of the goals with the help of program and policy mode of action. It mainly includes the destination of national marketing, intelligence and market research, industry, communication alongside direct infrastructural involvement and assistance of business development. This helps the organisations in implementing an effective strategy that tends to work in the winter months.


Porter’s in the generic strategy depicted three elements that reveal strategic nature.  It involves a strategy of cost leadership, the strategy of differentiation and lastly, the strategy of focus in terms of low cost and differentiation (NSW Government, 2020). NTOs / NTAs largely focus on the development of the product during the winter months. As per the opinion of Cheng et al. (2019), development of the product involves bringing uniqueness to the products; this is likely to attract most of the tourist attention as they prefer something unique in their content. As per the porter's generic strategy, the organisations implement the strategy of differentiation further involving product uniqueness in it so that the tourist can be attracted in the winter season. Conversely, as opined by Suhartanto (2018), the low cost of the tourist destination is also successful in attracting major tourist attention. As the tourist destination faces low revenue in the winter months, therefore the organisations implement the strategy of low cost in order to attract the attention of the tourists. Hence, the strategy of low cost and differentiation is followed by the mentioned organisations in the winter months in order to generate more revenue and tourists.  

Critical appraisal of tourism agencies strategies for promoting visitation to Sydney

Current Sydney is occupied with a marketing campaign that tends to promote winter activities. The campaigning named as Love Every Second has been built for promoting the visitation to Sydney during the winter months (NSW Government, 2020). The government of NSW seems to be investing $2 million for the development of the campaign.  It mainly focuses on the encapsulation of the chief experiences alongside the attraction and events to be covered during the winter months of Sydney. As per the illustration of Suhartanto (2018), the campaign seems to be creating an awareness regarding the events that are being hosted in the winter months of Sydney. Nonetheless, the campaign seems to be increasing the cost of the government. Along with that, Sydney has also been involved with a marketing campaign called Vivid Sydney besides the mentioned one (NSW Destination, 2020). 

However, the campaign contributes by bringing more tourist to the winter events by raising the revenue and maintaining the proper functionality of the place. Besides, the mentioned two campaigning’s of the place, another campaigning of marketing have been launched by Sydney government, Make the Most of Every Second in Sydney Just like a Local (Hicks, 2020). The mentioned campaigning also aims at promoting the different events within Sydney alongside attracting numerous visitors for benefiting the city with a high revenue margin. Hence, the campaigns that have been launched within the city aims at promoting the events and functions within the domain and attracting tourist based on the desired benefits. 

Assessment of Sydney's attractions

Summer months are considered to be the best for visiting Sydney due to the range of activities offered by the city within the summer months. However, there are certain events that are available during the winter months of the city. These includes 

  • Bondi beach

  • Historic Luna park 

  • Opera house of Sydney

  • Madame Tussauds

  • Royal Botanic garden

  • Sea-life Aquarium of Sydney

The attraction that is offered by the city during the winter months allows the tourist to explore the world of marine creatures alongside enjoy some concerts that are being held at the opera house. Apart from that, the tourist is also capable of enjoying the beach as well as enjoys joy rides further exploring nature. Strength of the attraction involves a diversity of the events alongside the existing culture and heritage of the city. Conversely, as pointed by Alexandris et al.(2017), no strategy of long term growth and lack of planning in terms of conferencing infrastructure is considered to be the weakness of the winter months of Sydney. Comparing to the summer months events of the city, the events offered by winter months are less attractive and hence results in the low customers within the season. Besides, the cheap deals that are offered in summer are missing in the winter due to low visit of the travellers. Henceforth, cheap deals on travelling alongside the implementation of numerous events can be fruitful for the winter months and generating high revenue. 


Based on the above-presented findings, it can be revealed that the summer months of Sydney consist of the majority of the events that are successful in attracting the attention of the numerous tourists across the world. Simultaneously, the winter months of the city are not attractive with fewer events that fail to attract a large base of tourist within the domain. Based on the theories of Pine & Gilmore 4 Realms of Experience, it has been categorised that the tourists are mainly motivated for travelling on the basis of education, esthetical, entertainment and escapism. However, the marketing campaign that is being offered by the city during the months of winter such as Vivid Sydney and Love Every Second tends to increase the revenue of the city during the winter months by attracting more tourists to the city. Hence, proper evaluation of the events within the winter months can be effective in increasing the tourist visit within the winter months. 


Bondi Beach Campfire event can be the best possible way to attract tourist during the winter months. The event will be based on the lightning campfire on the beach to have a hot effect in the cold weather. Apart from the campfire, the events will also be consisting of traditional dances and songs to keep the people touched with the cultural vibes of the place. The cultural vibes and gathering at the beach in a winter night can be effective in attracting the tourist to Sydney during the winter months. The young generations are likely to be attracted by the nature of the events, especially love birds as they can be enabled to spend quality of time together in peace and enjoy the scenic beauty. The event will be held once a week at night so that the tourist can catch the main attraction of the event.

The new events that have been mentioned are likely to attract both the existing and the new customers. It is because it appeals to the scenic beauty and will provide the facility to the tourist to enjoy the winter nights in the warm sand. It is because as per the Recreation Demand Hierarchy Model, the event is likely to manage the recreation within the domain through the management of current and past cultural beliefs at the same time (Matthews, Scarpa & Marsh, 2018). In addition to this, the accessibility of the event to the tourists also contributes to the main view of the model. Hence, as per the model, the new event is likely to manage the recreational activities within the domain, further making the event successful of attracting the majority of the attention (Refer to Appendix). 

Reference list

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