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Introduction to Epidemiology

Introduction to Epidemiology

This is the critical analysis of the organizational study on coffee and tea consumption and endometrial cancer. The study was designed to assess the connection between tea and coffee consumption and endometrial cancer. Research was conducted in a hospital setup. The study is based in Roswell Park where the author analyzed the relation between endometrial risk and regular use of coffee consumption and tea in women who have experienced endometrial cancer and women with an intact uterus but with no cancer diagnosis. The research was carried at the centre in United States during the period 1982 to 1998 (McCann et al. 2009). The appraisal will highlight contextual information and the relevance of the research conducted and its significance to public health. This analysis will include external and internal validity and causality on the study that was conducted on women participants.

Case Overview

 The study is designed by the analysis for coffee and tea consumption to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Key purpose of the analysis is to evaluate the connection between coffee, tea consumption in minimising risk of endometrial cancer.The study considered tea and coffee and how they are important in aspect of endometrial cancer risk. McCann et al. (2009) had stated that the body max index and intake of tea and coffee are modified by the higher consumption.

Context of The Study Design

The author examined the results by the American Cancer Society in 2007 that presented that 39,080 women based at the United States are on high incidence of endometrial cancer. The results inferred that 7400 women would experience endometrial cancer. Various researches have presented research on the relationship beverage intake in reducing incidence of cancer. The research specifically centered on coffee and tea are few despite being highly utilized beverages worldwide in consumption. Obesity, infertility, really menarche, and late menopause are linked with endometrial cancer. The reduced risk of cancer in uterus during pregnancy on consumption of tea and coffee. The researchers have assessed the relation of dietary intake and endometrial cancer but limited exposure is given to the tea and coffee consumption in this aspect.

They are high sources of lignans, isoflavones, catechism, flavonoids. They are a source of antihormonal, anti-inflammatory polyphenols. Coffee and tea impacts cell processes and work as inhibitors of carcinogens. The study had used coffee in totality with tea and observed the reduction in the ratios for categories that implied caffeine as a potential mechanism in etiology. The effects of coffee consumption is being the caffeine content. The significance of the interactions was assessed in the logistic regression model. The PEDS questionnaire administered on information on alcohol, tobacco consumption, medical histories at the centre at Roswell Park Cancer institute. Diagnosis of diet was queried by participants for the research using a food frequency questionnaire. Higher coffee consumption was linked to the women with normal weight is described in the analysis.

The statistics are used with categorization after the questionnaire designed for understanding the consumption level of women by logistics operation and factors such as alcohol, previous history linked to cancer for beverage consumption by cup communed by women on segmentation by decaffeinated coffee, coffee, tea with identifying the association between them through test scheduled on the women in the hospital. The study offers a literature view on its analysis for beverage consumption for relating to appropriateness. The Food Frequency Questionnaire that was used for the query for beverage consumption recorded the questions on the health and lifestyle aspects of an individual. The design used in the analysis had combined team and coffee consumption on the CI factors for the understanding influence of consumption on women who had been diagnosed and with an intact uterus. Arthur (2018) in his study had provided a large category within the sample for women sample on monitoring the aspect of lowest category intake vs. higher cagey intake. The research sign had shown in results of the inverse association with plasma free for hormonal etiology of endometrial cancer. Selection bias exists with the author selecting the population from Roswell Park Centre Institute as a population for the study.

The study takes into account postmenopausal women who are predominant in sample pollution at the hospital in the case of the baying if endometrial cancer research. The beverages were specifically listed in with cups of tea to coffee to analyze the consumption pattern and its correlation through the statistical test. The Sweden case found the impact of coffee that was linked with decline in endometrial cancer is one of the previous study. In research conducted on women in Japan provided the analysis between consumption of tea that is statistically inverse relations are and endometrial cancer in younger women.

Internal Validity

The study has limitation as in the research availability of information in research about the size of in consumption of beverages both tea and coffee and its influence on endometrial cancer on size of cup as measure. The analysis of the research authors used contemporary statistical data to examine the results. The hospital relates a case study that has the incidence of people at Roswell Park Centre. However, the findings of the research concerning BMI and application of HRT indicating the selection method for analysis. The authors had limited information regarding the portion of consumption of coffee, tea, and decaffeinated coffee in cups consumed per day. The use of the Food Frequency Questionnaire that was used for the query for beverage consumption had not been adequately proved to be used in the analysis.

The lack of a questionnaire may be incorrect and based on that can lead to a fragmented study (Hashibe, 2015). The research queries were used to assess the teamed coffee consumption for examining the relation with endometrial cancer. The dietary intake of the sample population before care has been altered before admitting to the facility. The availability of substantial epidemiological data allows statistical forecasting and creating mechanistic techniques. The statistical tool is effective in analyzing data and summarising procedure for precise results. The use of statistical analysis helps author inaccurate analysis through variance. According to the Statistical Analysis Tool (SAS), the tool incorporates reporting summarising procedures in analyzing statistical data for precise results. The effective categorization of the sample in groups hales in result accuracy as per the observation. The gap time between observation and diagnosis can affect the results due to maturation.

In the research for design, the author has created groups based on beverage consumption. Arthur (2015) stated that effective as a result of the category segmentation for risk incidence. The use of tables in summarizing results creates ease in readability and understanding. Concerning the analysis, the author describes statistical methods that are described relative to the appropriateness of the analysis with SAS, t-test., logistic regression models. Statistical tests are listed and authors have provided clear description of statistical tools through variable analysis in calculation. Inference and modeling as are mentioned with tabular description. The results are clearly defined for the beverage consumption as categorized for cups per day with options for total consumption, and each beverage. Logistic regression is used age, body mass index with status for variables such as smoking, education, the high school in the confidence intervals for odds ratios, and trend on the regression model. (Dechartres, 2017). The analysis in the t-test observed the consumption for risk associated with categorization to women on BMI Index, although stratified analysis suggested modifications that were not statistically significant. The miscalculation in the study can be linked to different cup sizes.

This study may be affected by instrumentation as the sample group was chosen from the hospital, it is possible to prime participants in the study for the manipulation of results. Maturation is another important aspect that is found in the study. The study has taken a sample of women from the year 1982 to 1998, it is possible that the participants naturally changed in some way in their health that may have impacted the study due to the effect of time. This study has a controlled range of covariates but has some flaws in the design relating to cofounding issues and selection bias. Controlling potential cofounding variables for alternative treatment is affected by maturation and testing (Arditte, 2016). The selection threat is the outmost threat that will sample selection dominance of the particular category of women affected the validity of the analysis. The practical perspective on demonstrating internal validity and treatment control group is equal to the independent variable. The author has used cofounder such as age, body mass, smoking habits.

The author used different techniques to prevent confounding through stratification and adjusted through the statistical test. Confounding effects due to the presence of post menstrual women in the selection of samples for cancer research. Selection bias exists with the author selecting the population from Roswell Park Centre Institute as a population for the study. The postmenopausal women were predominant in the study that had resulted in the analysis of higher consumption of tea rich in flavonoids that can modulate armostaste activity. The statistical tests are natural effects on participants rather than the effect on intervention with the use of t-test and standard deviation (Baak, 2015). The selection of maturation interaction effect is possible on the selected population. The participants at Rosewood might have to take treatment at other facilities. The chances of experimental morality and result biasedness due to epidemical questionnaire were not filled by 50% of the participants that may have impacted the consumption and risk categorization results in the study

Appraisal of External Validity

The author in their research utilized data that was accessible regarding endometrial cancer experiencing women consuming beverages and compared the result with women who were not experiencing endometrial cancer. The data selected in case-control is from one center which is not the representative whole population. In the research, the 50% hospital population answered the questionnaire. The measurement cup difference exists worldwide hence the study cannot be generalized. The hospital data sample collection eligibility criteria other than endometrial cancer of the control part was not mentioned. The average age is 63 in the case among the sample. The result cannot be generalized to a large population in the unsolicited sample (Portney, 2020). The advantage of sampling is that the cohort may not be completely representative of the wider population. In potential section bias, the population's action and cup size were selected that cannot be generalized due to racial difference and consumption. The questionnaire in the study was not answered shows the lack of applicability on the basis population section for other than population evaluated. The author has described a Sweden based study that has used dietary factors and endometrial cancer. The non-representativeness that the study is from settings unlike that can be applied for generalization due to sample selection and the research results. The portion of beverage consumption by women had no particular information that can be queried that is a threat to external validity.

Appraisal of Causality Inference

The study is designed to analyse the relation on the coffee consumption, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer is one of common cancer in women that begin in the lining of the uterus (Yang, 2015). The effectiveness of consumption as influence endometrial cancer is inconsistent and limited. Risk factors that relate to endometrial cancer family history of endometrial cancer, smoking, oral contraceptive, and menopause history that relates to endometrial cancer. The study shows the listed relation in the higher consumption of beverages (tea and coffee) on endometrial cancer. The limited literature points towards no significant relationship between the two. Coffee and tea have caffeine as well as phytochemicals that affects carcinogens but significant relation is not identified other than BMI index (McCann et al, 2009).

Conclusion on Introduction to Epidemiology

The research indicates that endometrial cancer can be minimised with the intake of tea and coffee in the study design. The literature can be further explored on the observational study by experimental study for further studying causation between tea, coffee and endometrial cancer. Diagnosis of diet was queried by participants for the research using a food frequency questionnaire. The study has limitation due to the lack of responders in questionnaire and inadequate information regarding size and consumption of beverages, that has impacted the study with determine the accuracy of results. The research is designed had limited exposure with no significant previous literature on the relation between the coffee, tea and endometrial cancer. The results suggested that the tea consumption and coffee with the balance in body mass index can significantly reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. In my onion the literature is useful and future researchers should incorporate the finding of the research to further analyse the link between tea and coffee in the women participants in the study.

This study has limitations in generalization concerning the population selected due to bias on respondents’ record not taken (50%). The relative study in Sweden with the association of coffee intake and endometrial cancer decrease on women with body mass index (BMI). The effectiveness of coffee and tea consumption in minimising endometrial cancer is inconsistent and limited. The parent research may not be completely reliable. The study relates to BMI as the main modifier for tea and coffee for reducing the risk of endometrial cancer non-inclusive of decaffeinated coffee. The study has limitations with experimental morality and result bias due to epidemical questionnaire were not filled by 50% of the participants that may have impacted the consumption and risk categorization results in the questionnaire. The author describes the design, statical analysis in a logical way and identifies research through the hospital-based study. The availability of data in women with the incident of endometrial cancer and comparable comparison offers slight results with respect to the effect on risk incidence. The consumption may vary with body mass index with consumption and inactivation of dietary and environmental carcinogens in women with risk incidence.

Reference List for Introduction to Epidemiology

Arditte, K. A., Cek, D., Shaw, A. M., & Timpano, K. R. (2016). The importance of assessing clinical phenomena in Mechanical Turk research. Psychol Assess., 28(6), 684-691

Arthur, R., Kirsh, V. A., & Rohan, T. E. (2018). Associations of coffee, tea and caffeine intake with risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer among Canadian women. Cancer Epidemiol. 56(1), 75-82.

Baak, M., Besjes, G. J., Cote, D., Koutsrnan, A., Lorenz, J., & Short, D. (2015). HistFiner software framework for statistical data analysis. TO European Physical Journal C, 75(4), 153.

Dechartres, A., Trinquart, L., Atal, I., Moher, D., Dickersin, K., Boutron, L. & Ravaud, P. (2017). Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomized controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: Research on research study. BMJ. 357, j2490.

Hashibe, M., Galeone, C., Buys, S. S., Gren, L., Boffena, P., Zhang, Z. F., & La Vecchia, C. (2015). Coffee, tea, caffeine intake, and the risk of cancer in the PLCO cohort. British Journal of Cancer,113(5), 809-816.

McCann, S. E., Yeh, M., Rodabaugh, K., & Moysich, K. B. (2009). Higher regular coffee and tea consumption are associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer. 12(7), 1650-1653.

Portney, G. L. (2020). Foundations of Clinical Research. Applications of Evidence-Based Practice. Philadelphia, USA: FA Davis.

Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (Eds.). (2015). Methods of critical discourse studies. Sage publication

Yang, T.O., Crowe, F., Cairns, B.J. Reeves, G.K., &Beral, V. (2015). Tea and coffee risk of endometrial cancer: Cohort study and meta-analysis: The America Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 101(3), 570-578.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Epidemiology Assignment Help

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