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  1. Nervous System:

Answer a)

As per the National Institute of Health (2018), the nervous system has two sub-systems. The Central Nervous System or CNS constitutes the two components; the brain as well as the spinal cord, while the Peripheral Nervous System or PNS is composed of nerves branching out from the spinal cord. A nerve cell is defined as the basic unit of this system and is composed of multiple structures such as dendrites, cell body, nucleus, Node of Ranvier, Myelin sheath, and some special extensions termed as axons.

Answer b)

The information related to changes in the external environment enters the body in the form of stimuli. This stimulus is detected by the dendrites of the nerve cells or neurons. The stimuli get transferred from the dendrites to the axons, and then they reach the axon terminals. All the nerve cells are connected; however, they have a small gap between them, and this gap is called the synapse. The stimuli get converted into electrical impulses when it reaches this synapse. The synapse moves to all the nerve cells and reaches the brain and spinal cord. The brain analyses the electrical impulses and then produces responses against the stimuli. The central nervous system produces responses against stimuli, while the peripheral nervous system with nerves is responsible for the transportation of stimuli from the body parts to the environment (LibreTexts 2020d).

Answer c)

(i) Alzheimer's disease: As per Tiwari et al. (2019), it is caused due to deposition of extracellular β-amyloidal in the brain. This deposition leads to events that cause the death of the nerve cells, and it also negatively impacts the neural synapses. Another hypothesis that explains the pathophysiology of this disease is neurofibrillary tangling. According to this hypothesis, a protein in the brain named prion gets misfolded in older adults. After getting misfolded, it causes other prion proteins to get misfolded in the similar way in which it got misfolded. The accumulation of the misfolded proteins in the brain causes Alzheimer's disease. The common signs or symptoms of this disease include short-term memory loss, speaking difficulty; inability to recognize people; impaired thinking, and reasoning skills.

(ii) Parkinson's disease: It is also a type of progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by tremor attacks, slowed movements of limbs, and other body parts such as hands and fingers. Impaired body posture is also observed in the people having this disease. Speaking and writing difficulties are also symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This disease is caused due to several factors such as exposure to toxic substances, genetic mutations of specific genes, accumulation of Lewy bodies within the brain cells, and the deposition of alpha-synuclein (a protein) (Mayo Clinic 2018a).

(iii) Huntington's disease: It is defined as an inherited disorder that leads to degeneration of the brain nerve cells. It is primarily observed in the people who are above the age of thirty years. The body has a gene named "HTT," which helps in regulating the functioning of the brain nerve cells. The abnormal changes or mutation in this gene causes Huntington's disease. These mutations are caused when the repetition of the CAG segment in the DNA increases more than 35 times. The signs and symptoms of this disorder include lack of control, flexibility, awareness, learning difficulty, dystopia, chorea, and swallowing difficulty (Mayo Clinic 2020a).

  1. Cardiovascular System:

Answer a)

According to LibreTexts (2018), the cardiovascular system contains the heart, along with the blood and three types of blood vessels. The blood vessels are the structures that transfer the blood throughout the body. The blood is responsible for the transportation of different materials such as gases and nutrients from one body to another. The cardiovascular system is composed of different types of blood vessels; veins, arteries, and capillaries.

Answer b)

The heart is considered as the primary component of this system; its contraction and relaxation are responsible for blood transportation. The blood pumped by the heart is rich in oxygen, and it is transported to the other parts of the body through the blood vessels, named arteries. The aorta is the artery that carries the oxygenated blood and then branches into other arteries to provide oxygen to other body parts. The body tissues produce carbon dioxide, and this carbon dioxide is then transported by the blood vessels named capillaries. This is the way in which the cardiovascular system performs its functions of transporting gases across the body parts (Kids Health 2018a).

Answer c)

(i) Coronary Artery Disease: It is a type of cardiovascular disease which is caused due to the accumulation of excess cholesterol in the form of plaque inside the walls of the blood vessels (arteries). Due to plaque deposition, the arteries are unable to transport enough amount of blood to the heart. The plaque blocks the flow of blood inside the arteries, and this leads to heart attacks. Some of the signs and symptoms include angina (chest pain), breath shortness, nausea, pain in the shoulders, and weakened heart muscles (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019).

(ii) Arrhythmias: In this condition, either the heart beats very fast (tachycardia), or it beats very slowly (bradycardia). It is caused due to abnormal rhythm disturbances such as abnormal impulse formation and conduction. When the heart is unable to form or conduct impulses that lead to the rhythm; then, this causes arrhythmias. This disease is characterized by chest pain, the abnormal beating of the heart, dizziness, sweating, and breathe shortness (Medline Plus 20160.

(iii) Cardiomyopathy: This is caused due to several factors such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart valves, rapid heart rate, damaged cardiac tissues, drinking, the substance used, and smoking. Some of the signs and symptoms of this disorder include breathlessness, coughing, swelling of the knees, discomfort in the chest, fainting, and dizziness (Mayo Clinic 2019a).

Answer d)

Assessment of blood pressure (BP) can help in detecting the disorders related to this system. The value of blood pressure indicates the amount of pressure that is exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. In case the pressure exerted is more than standard value, it can lead to hypertension, and if the value of the pressure is lower than normal, then it reflects high chances of hypotension. The standards value of BP is 120/80 mm of Hg, and the BP can be assessed by the devices such as sphygmomanometer and stethoscope (Nursing Times 2020).

  1. Respiratory System:

Answer a)

The upper respiratory tract of this system constitutes the structures that support airways passage inside the body. For example, mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity, and larynx are located in the upper respiratory tract. However, the lower respiratory tract of the respiratory includes bronchi and lungs. The trachea is also a part of the lower respiratory system. The lungs have alveoli that are the units of gaseous exchange. The diaphragm and ribs control the process of respiration, and thus, they are also considered as parts of the respiratory system (Cleveland Clinic 2020).

Answer b)

The air moves inside with the help of the nasal passage; the contaminants such as dust and microbes are trapped by the hairs in the nose. The air enters the pharynx, then moves through the larynx and ultimately reach the bronchioles. The air from the bronchioles moves inside the lungs, from where air enters the small, sac-like structures named alveoli. The blood vessels; capillaries are present in abundance near the alveoli. There is a thin wall between these blood vessels and alveoli. The alveoli pass the oxygen to the capillaries, and in return, the capillaries provide the carbon dioxide produced by the body to the alveoli. The capillaries then provide the oxygen-rich blood to the heart. (Cleveland Clinic 2020).

Answer c)

(i) Asthma: The muscles that are involved in respiration get abnormally narrowed in this condition. Due to which; an adequate amount of gas is inhaled inside the body, and the rate of respiration decreases. The inflammation of these muscles and the excessive production of mucus by these muscles can also lead to asthma. An asthmatic patient faces difficulty in breathing, breathe shortness, excessive coughing, troubled sleeping, and frequent sneezing are common signs and symptoms of this disease (Several Asthma Toolkit 2019).

(ii) Pneumonia: It is the medical condition in which the alveoli get inflamed and are unable to perform their function efficiently. The bacteria and virus present in the inhaled air enter the upper respiratory tract and then move inside the lungs. After this, they enter the alveoli and multiply inside it. This rapid multiplication of the microbes inside the lungs and alveoli reduces the rate of breathing. It has symptoms such as nausea, coughing, breath shortness, fatigue, and hypothermia (Mayo Clinic 2020b).

(iii) Cystic Fibrosis: The DNA has a gene named cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator or CFTR. The function of this gene is to regulate the movement of ions in the cells. However, any mutation in this gene affects the flow of ions in the cells. The impaired movement of these ions causes the accumulation of mucus in the cells. The excessive deposition of mucus in the lungs reduces the rate of respiration, and this leads to cystic fibrosis. The symptoms include wheezing, sinusitis, lung infection, breathing difficulties, and stuffy nose (Naehrig, Chao &Naehrlich 2017).

Answer d)

Respiration rate is a nursing assessment that is used to detect whether the person has any respiratory disorder or not. It helps to determine the breathing issues faced by an individual. It is defined as the breathes taken by an individual in one minute. Its standard value is 12-16 breathes in one minute. It can be assessed by placing the stethoscope on the patient's chest and then counting the number of respirations that the patient takes in one minute (Johns Hopkins Medicine 2018).

  1. Endocrine System/Immune System:

Answer a)

The system that is composed of endocrine glands, the glands that release their secretions directly into the bloodstreams, is termed as the endocrine system (LibreTexts,2019a). As per Johns Hopkins Medicine (2017), hypothalamus, parathyroid, thymus, testes, pancreas, and ovary are the endocrine glands. Pituitary, thyroid, Pineal body and adrenal glands are also major components of this system. All these glands release specific secretions in the bloodstream to regulate and control the different body processes. For example, the secretions released by the hypothalamus regulate sleep and body pressure. Similarly, the adrenal gland located near the kidneys secretes a hormone named corticosteroid to maintain the normal blood pressure of the body (LibreTexts 2019d).

Answer b)

The organs of the endocrine system, such as the adrenal gland, and hypothalamus that release their hormones into the bloodstream and these hormones than maintain homeostasis in the body. These hormones, through the blood circulatory system, move to all the parts of the body and then perform their specific functions. For example, the pituitary gland releases growth hormones, prolactin, and others. All these hormones have their particular functions; growth hormone stimulates the growth of body organs, and prolactin controls milk production. This system is responsible for regulating the hormones that are released by the endocrine glands. (Kids Health 2018b).

Answer c)

(i) Acromegaly: It is observed in the patients that have pituitary adenoma, a form of tumour in the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland having this tumour produces an excess amount of growth hormone as a result of which there is an increase in the amount of IGF-1 in the body increases. The sign and symptoms include large feet, development of large hands, jutting forehead, high blood pressure, and gigantism (Hormone Health Network 2019).

(ii) Grave's disease: It is caused due to the excessive binding of the IgG antibodies with the thyrotropin receptors. The IgG antibodies bonded with this receptor lead to the production of thyroid hormone. The excessive binding of these antibodies and receptors increases the concentration of thyroid hormone in the body. As a result of this abnormal increase in the amount of thyroid hormone, the patient has damaged the thyroid gland. Sign and symptoms include troubled sleeping, diarrhoea, tiredness, bulging eyes, thickened eyes, and goitre (Womenshealth 2018).

(iii) Hypothyroidism: It is caused when the body considers the cells of the thyroid gland as non-self-cells and attacks them. As a result of this, the thyroid glands do not have enough cells that can produce thyroid hormone. There is a decrease in the concentration of this hormone due to patients has symptoms such as constipation, weight gain, weakness, muscle cramps, and depression (American Thyroid Association n.d.).

Answer d)

Hypothalamus is a part of this system, and the hormones secreted by it are responsible for regulating the body temperature. This indicates that assessing body temperature can help in detecting whether the endocrine system is working correctly or not. The range of normal body temperature is 97.8 degrees Fahrenheit –99degrees Fahrenheit. It is detected by using glass thermometers that are filled with mercury. Nurses can place these thermometers in the patient's mouth or under the armpits to detect their body temperature (Johns Hopkins Medicine 2018).

Answer e)

The process through which the body tries to maintain a normal state of equilibrium is known as homeostasis. The endocrine system has a crucial role in this process. The hormones released by this system are responses to the changes that occur in the external environment (stimuli). These changes either cause an increase or a decrease in the amount of the hormones secreted by this organ system. The endocrine system has two feedback loops, positive and negative. The positive loop is used when the response reduces the stimuli while the negative is used when the response increases the stimulus. For example, the amount of blood glucose level is very high in the body; then, the hormone insulin is released by an organ named pancreas, and the role of this hormone will reduce the blood glucose level by using the negative feedback loop. Once the blood glucose level is maintained at its normal value, the secretion of this hormone by the pancreas is also decreased (Opencurriculum n.d.).

  1. Renal System:

Answer a)

As per Hickling, Sun and Wu (2016), the organ system that is responsible for production, storage, transportation, and excretion of urine is termed as the urinary or renal system. The major structures of this organ system are the urinary bladder, kidneys, ureters, and the urethra. The kidneys have small units named nephrons that act as the functional units of the kidneys. The nephrons present in the kidneys produced urine. This urine is then transferred to the ureters from where it gets transported to the urinary bladders. The opening through urine is released into the external environment is termed as urethra (LibreTexts 2020a).

Answer b)

The renal system has kidneys and the kidneys constitute the nephrons. The nephrons are responsible for the production of urine. The nephron removes out the wastes that are present in the blood and forms the urine. The urine that is produced by the nephrons has to be removed out of the body. The urine is transported to the urine storage structure, the urinary bladder. The urine is transported to the urinary bladder through the left and right ureters. The urinary bladder stores the urine until there is an urge for urination. The urinary balder has the opening, urethra, which is responsible for excreting out the urine from the body (LibreTexts 2020a).

Answer c)

(i) Urinary Incontinence: It is caused due to when the urinary bladder contracts due to irritation. It is also observed when the body loses its neurological control over the contraction of the urinary bladder. Its symptoms include urinating while sneezing, laughing, wheezing, and coughing. The frequent desire to urinate and urinating while sleeping is also signs of this disease (Mayo Clinic 2019b).

(ii) Acute Pyelonephritis: It is caused when the microbes enter the urinary tract and affect the kidneys as well as urinary bladders. Escherichia coli can cause urinary infections that lead to inflamed kidneys or acute pyelonephritis. Painful as well as very frequent urination, nausea, chills, and abdominal pain are some of the signs and symptoms of this renal disorder (Urology Care n.d.)

(iii) Urinary Tract Infections: These are the bacterial infections that occur in the urinary tract. These are of different types, such as cystitis (bacterial infection of the urinary bladder) and arthritis (infection of the urethra). These are caused when harmful bacteria enter the urinary tracts and affect them. It's signs and symptoms include the inflamed urethra, swelled urinary bladder, frequent urination, painful urination, and pain in the abdominal region (Cleveland Clinic 2020).

Answer d)

The test named urinalysis helps detect the diseases related to the renal system. In this test, the concentration, pH, and other characteristics of the urine are identified, and the abnormal results obtained in this test indicate that the patient has renal disorders. In this test, the nurses have to check the pH of the urine, the amount of sodium present in the urine, and other characteristics of the urine that is collected from the patient. The normal pH must be between six to eight, while sodium concentration must be 3-6gram/24h (Mayo Clinic 2019c).

  1. Reproductive System:

Answer a)

Males and females have a different reproductive system; however, they both have some primary structures such as the gonads; gametes and sex hormones. The production of gametes and sex hormones is the primary function of the gonads. The males have testes as their gonads with produce sperms and male sex hormones, testosterone. Similarly, the females have ovaries as their gonads that produce female gametes known as eggs and the female sex hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Some of the other parts of the male reproductive system include scrotum, vas deferens, epididymis, and penis. However, the females have a uterus, vagina, and other structures apart from the ovaries (LibreTexts 2020b).

Answer b)

The gonads of the reproductive structure produce gametes and sex hormones. The gonads of the male reproductive system; testes produce the sperms and testosterone. Similarly, the female gonads; ovaries produce the eggs ant the sex hormones; progesterone and estrogen. The male gametes (sperms) fertilize with the female gametes (eggs) through the process called fertilization. The sperms are motile, and they reach the non-motile eggs and fuse with them. The sex hormones are responsible for the formation of secondary sex characteristics. The fused eggs develop into zygote; that develops into an embryo and then eventually grows into the fetus (LibreTexts 2020b).

Answer c)

(i) Endometriosis: This is a disease in which the uterine lining moves outside the uterus. It is caused due to retrograde menstruation in which the blood from the uterus travels to the fallopian tube and then eventually reaches the abdominal region. It is also caused when some amount of blood of the uterus is carried to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system. Abdominal pain, pain during intercourse, and vaginal bleeding are some symptoms of this disorder (UCLA n.d.).

(ii) Uterine fibroids: It is a disorder in which tumour is formed in the uterus wall. It is caused due to the abnormal production of the sex hormones, progesterone as well as estrogen in the body. The increased level of these two hormones causes this disease. Frequent urination, painful intercourse, heavy bleeding, and infertility are the signs of uterine fibroids (Womenshealth 2019). 

(iii) Prostatitis: It is a disorder of the reproductive system which is observed in males. It is caused when the bacteria enter the urinary system and then the reproductive system. In this disorder, the prostate gland gets inflamed and swelled. The signs of this disorder include painful urination, pain during intercourse, chills, fever irritation, and malaise (Coker &Dierfeldt 2016).

  1. Lymphatic System/Immune System:

Answer a)

According to LGDA (2018), the lymphatic system contains different significant components. The colourless fluid rich in white blood cells is transported through the lymphatic system is termed as the lymph. The lymph gets carried by the small, valveless vessels called the lymphatic vessels. The lymph nodes of the lymphatic system remove the harmful systems from the lymph. The lymphatic system also has several lymphatic tissues, such as the tissues of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. The organs of the lymphatic system, such as spleen and thymus, are termed as the lymphatic organs. This system is related to the immune system, the organ system that protects the body from antigens and infectious agents. The lymphoid organs are also parts of the immune system; for example, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and bone marrow have roles in protecting the body from antigens. Leukocytes, such as phagocytes and basophils, are immune cells that produce responses against invading antigens (LibreTexts 2019b).

Answer b)

The primary function of this system is to drain the accumulated interstitial fluid. The lymph present in the lymphatic system is drained into the lymphatic capillary vessels. These lymphatic capillary vessels are located at the interstitial spaces between the body tissues and the body organs. The lymph that has tissue fluids and other substances is then transported to the lymph nodes. These nodes transport the lymph to the blood circulatory system; these nodes pass the lymph into the vena cava. The lymph nodes also remove the harmful pathogens present in the lymph before transporting it to the vena cava of the circulatory system (LibreTexts 2020e). The lymphoid organs such as spleen, thymus, and bone marrow are responsible for the production, development, and maturation of the lymphocytes. These cells destroy the antigens that attack the body cells. The lymphatic vessels transport the antigen-presenting cells and white blood cells to the lymph nodes that are present near the site of infection. These cells move to the site of infection and destroy the antigens, and thus, in this way, the immune system protects the body from antigens (LibreTexts 2019d).

Answer c)

(i) Lymphadenopathy: It is a disease in which the lymph nodes get swelled due to bacterial and viral invasions. This disorder is caused when more number of antibodies are produced by the body to kill the pathogens. Night sweats, swelled lymph nodes, fever, and sore throat are the common symptoms of this disease (Cleveland Clinic 2019).

(ii) Rheumatoid Arthritis: It is an auto-immune disorder that is caused when the body's immune system considers its cells as antigens. In this disorder, the joints get inflamed, and this causes pain in the joints. The immune system in this disease considers the joints as non-self and attacks them. Symptoms include joint pain, swelling of joints, stiffness, weight loss, and tiredness (Versus Arthritis 2018).

(iii) Multiple sclerosis (MS): It is caused when the immune cells attack the central nervous system. This is because the immune system starts considering the cells of the CNS as antigens and produces antibodies against them. As a result, the cells of the CNS get inflamed, and their ability to recognize the stimuli and to provide response against it gets weakened. The symptoms of this disorder include numbness, fatigue, muscle spasm, depression, difficulty in moving, and vision-related issues (MS Society n.d.)

  1. Special Sense:

Answer a)

According to LibreTexts (2020c), the sense organs that have the capability of converting the sensory information into nerve impulses are termed as special senses. The special senses organs are ears, eyes, tongue, and nose. All these organs convert the sensory information into nerve impulses. The eyes have photoreceptors that respond to the incoming light. They can sense light. The ears have sensory receptors named mechanoreceptors that sense all types of vibrations; this is the reason that ears can detect different types of sounds. The tongue has a chemoreceptor that sense tastes. The nose is the sense organ that has olfactory receptors, the receptors that can detect different types of smell.

Answer b)

The photoreceptors present in the eyes include rods and cones; that can detect light. This is because these photoreceptors capture the sensory information related to vision and then convert them into electrical impulses due to which eyes easily view objects. The ears have mechanoreceptors, the specialized receptors that capture sensory information related to vibrations and sound. All the vibrations and sounds in the nearby environment are captured by these receptors; they are then converted into electric impulses, and these impulses help us in differentiating different types of sounds from each other. The chemoreceptor present in the tongue detects the chemicals present in the food materials. They then covert the sensory information related to these chemicals into electrical impulses, and due to this, the tongue can distinguish different types of tastes. The olfactory receptors present in the nose also convert the sensory information related to smell into electrical impulses, and these impulses help the nose in differentiating different types of smells (LibreTexts 2020c).

Answer c)

 (i) Genetic congenital hearing loss: It is a type of genetic disorder that is used due to the mutation of DFNA, DFNB, and DFNX genes. The mutation of these genes affects the functioning of the mechanoreceptors present in the ears. As a result of these impaired mechanoreceptors, the ears are unable to detect the sound. Some of the symptoms of this disease include difficulty in understanding and speaking, troubled hearing, avoidance, and depression (Korver et al. 2018).

(ii) Cataract: In this disorder, the eye lens becomes cloudy, and this reduces a person's vision. It is caused because the eye lens with ageing becomes cloudy and less transparent due to which they are unable to produce a clear image of the objects. Moreover, the photoreceptors present in the eyes also lose their functioning with ageing that leads to this disease. Its signs and symptoms include blurred or unclear vision, inability to view objects at night, light insensitive, and double vision (Mayo Clinic 2018b).

(iii) Anosmia: As per Goncalves and Goldstein (2016), insomnia is a disorder related to the improper functioning of the nose. In this disorder, the nose is unable to detect the smell because of nasal congestions. In this disorder, the olfactory neurons of the nose are able unable to perform their function of detecting stimuli related to smell. The signs and symptoms of this disorder include smelling difficulty, issues in identifying the taste of the food, headache, nose congestions, and nose bleeds.

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Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help

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